DegreeDoctor of Pharmacy
Please call: 1-800-477-4UNE or 207-221-4500 for further information. Applications are available online from PharmCAS (Pharmacy College Application Service) www.pharmcas.org.
College of Pharmacy Professional Mission Statement
The mission of the College will be to provide an outstanding environment for the teaching-learning process to effectively deliver a contemporary pharmacy curriculum designed to graduate competent practitioners for the state of Maine and the nation. Additionally, the College will establish and maintain an active and productive research enterprise for the discovery of new knowledge in the laboratory and in the patient care setting. The College will also cultivate and nurture in its students the value and need for a commitment to life-long learning, community service and social responsibility.
The College offers the Doctor of Pharmacy as the professional degree that prepares students for careers as pharmacists in a variety of practice settings. A minimum of two years of undergraduate pre-professional education is required for admission. The two-year, undergraduate pre-professional program (Pre-Pharmacy) is offered on UNE’s Biddeford Campus in Biddeford, Maine and at other institutions. The Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree is awarded after successful completion of four years of professional study in the College of Pharmacy located on UNE’s Portland Campus in Portland, Maine. To apply or to learn more about this exciting program, please call (800) 477-4UNE, or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Pharmacy is one of the most highly respected healthcare professions in the United States. The vast majority of states are currently doing their best to address a crisis in our health care delivery system due to a shortage of pharmacists. Maine ranks quite high in its need for pharmacists and although we recognize that not all of our graduates will remain in our state, we believe that our program will definitely make a difference in providing competent practitioners to serve the health needs of our citizens. Admission to pharmacy programs is very competitive and at UNE there is a high demand for entrance into our four-year professional degree program.
The College of Pharmacy will strive to achieve balance in its research efforts between discovery of clinically relevant drugs or drug delivery systems and pre-clinical and clinical development of these entities. Our primary area of focus will be the discovery and development of new drug molecules. Other areas of research activity will include therapeutic biomarkers, drug delivery methods, nutraceuticals, herbal medicines, and strategies for assessing individual variations in drug response, nutritional status or inborn errors of metabolism. All pre-clinical and clinical work will be performed in analytical facilities that are fully compliant with good laboratory practice. Such facilities will allow for translation of basic research discoveries into clinical development. In addition to bridging the gap between basic academic research and clinical development, we plan to educate our pharmacy students about the drug discovery process and the necessary regulatory compliance required for drug development. Our students will understand the basic science, thought process, and strategies for the generation of new drug discoveries. They will also be familiar with the safety, the formulation, and the delivery of new drug entities. They will have instruction on the principles of proper clinical trial design and the process by which a new drug product is introduced into commercial use.
The College operates guided by a set of values that:
- Foster pride in pharmacy’s contributions to society.
- Maintain a student-centered approach in its teaching.
- Promote leadership in its students to further develop the profession.
- Provide diverse pathways for its students to continue their formal education.
- Embrace and learn from the diversity of its students and faculty.
- Instill in its students the value of lifelong learning.
- Conduct all of its programs in an atmosphere of collegiality and mutual respect.
- Develop a spirit of community service and social responsibility.
- Deliver its programs guided by a spirit of integrity and accountability.
- Maintain a program of on-going faculty and staff development.
- Strive to achieve academic excellence by adhering to its standards for quality.
- Pursue discovery with a passion for improving quality of life.
The College initiative is clearly consistent with UNE’s mission, which is to “provide a highly integrated learning experience that promotes excellence through interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation in education, research, and service.”
University of New England College of Pharmacy’s Doctor of Pharmacy program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, 135 South LaSalle Street, Suite 4100, Chicago, IL 60503, 312/664-3575; FAX 312/664-4652, web site www.acpe-accredit.org.
Application for the two-year undergraduate pre-professional (Pre-Pharmacy) program is made through Undergraduate Admissions. Visit the Undergraduate Admissions website and find details on admissions criteria in the Catalog. All Pre-pharmacy students must apply for admission to the Doctor of Pharmacy Program, i.e., admission is not automatic or assured.
Doctor of Pharmacy Admissions
All Candidates applying to UNE’s Pharm D program must:
- Complete a minimum of two years of undergraduate pre-professional coursework with 72 required undergraduate credits from a regionally accredited institution(s) to include the following:
|General Biology, equivalent to 2 semester courses||Labs||8|
|General Chemistry, equivalent to 2 semester courses||Labs||8|
|Human Anatomy & Physiology, equivalent to 2 semester courses||Labs||8|
|Physics I, equivalent to 1 semester course||Lab||4|
|Organic Chemistry, equivalent to 2 semester courses||Labs||8|
|Statistics for life sciences||3|
|English (including 1 course in English Composition)||6|
|Introduction to Psychology||3|
|Liberal Arts Electives||6|
- Complete all math and science courses within five (5) years of matriculation into the Doctor of Pharmacy program.
- Complete all coursework by the end of the summer session of the year of matriculation into the Doctor of Pharmacy program.
- Have earned a minimum overall GPA of 2.5 with grades of “C” or better in each course.
- Have successfully completed the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) by the end of January of the desired year of matriculation to the College.
The College of Pharmacy reserves the right to make exceptions to the above when it deems such a decision is appropriate.
Note: Before matriculation, accepted applicants will need to obtain a physical examination with proof of up-to-date immunization status. Immunization of students is based on current Centers for Disease Control recommendations for health professionals. This information must be presented prior to matriculation.
As required by clinical training sites, students will be subject to criminal background checks and drug screens prior to matriculation, and periodically throughout the Pharmacy program.
Procedures and Policies (For all applicants)
- Applications for admissions are accepted through the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) only.
- On-campus interviews are granted to qualified applicants upon invitation by the Admissions Committee and are required for admission to the program.
- Admissions are rolling and decisions are made after each interview session and continue until the program starts with candidates on the waitlist being offered admissions as seats become available.
- Applications received before the deadline will be given full consideration. Applications received after the deadline will be reviewed on a space available basis only.
- International applicants and applicants with international degrees must have their transcripts evaluated for degree and grade equivalency to that of a regionally accredited US institution. See International Admissions for a list of educational credential evaluators.
- International Applicants must submit the International Student Supplemental Application Form at time of acceptance to the university.
- All applicants to UNE must be able to understand and communicate in English to be admitted to the university. UNE accepts several methods of English Proficiency. (see International Admissions) If applicable, the TOEFL requirement must be completed and score received by the application deadline.
- Official transcripts for in-progress degrees and other in-progress or planned prerequisites (not verified by PharmCAS) must be submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Admissions prior to matriculation. (This includes all degrees/coursework in progress and planned at the time of submission of the PharmCAS application.)
The Admission Committee reserves the right to make changes or exceptions to the admission policies and procedures without notice when it deems such a decision is appropriate.
For additional information on the admissions process and requirements, please access the College of Pharmacy’s website.
Transfer credits are rarely awarded to students who transfer from another Doctor of Pharmacy program. The Associate Dean of the College of Pharmacy, with input from the course directors, will award transfer credits on a case-by-case basis.
No credit will be awarded to transfer students for experiential learning.
Program Academic and Technical Standards
Academic Program Standards
Pharmacy students must complete all Doctor of Pharmacy Program requirements and receive a passing grade in all courses and clinical rotations to be eligible for graduation. The graduating student must have a cumulative grade point average of a 2.0 or better and be recommended for graduation by the faculty.
All students must be able to meet the following University of New England (UNE) College of Pharmacy technical standards. A student accepted into the Doctor of Pharmacy Program must have abilities and skills in five categories: observation, communication, motor, intellectual, and behavioral/social. Standards are developed as criteria to achieve the Doctor of Pharmacy degree in preparation for licensure as a practicing pharmacist and for postgraduate professional training and education in any of the varied fields of pharmacy. Further, the safety of the patient, on whom the pharmaceutical education process is largely focused, must be guarded as the final and ultimate consideration.
The University of New England, College of Pharmacy acknowledges Section 504 of the 1973 Vocational Rehabilitation Act and PL 11-336, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 19903, and requires minimum technical standards be present in students accepted into the Doctor of Pharmacy program. The College of Pharmacy will engage in an interactive process with applicants with disabilities but the College of Pharmacy reserves the right not to admit any applicant who cannot meet the Technical Standards set forth below, with reasonable accommodations. Applicants are not required to disclose the nature of their disability(ies), if any, to the Admissions Committee. However, any applicant with questions about these technical standards is strongly encouraged to discuss his/her specific issue(s) with Disability Services prior to the interview process. If appropriate, and upon the request of the applicant, reasonable accommodations will be provided.
Reasonable accommodation for persons with documented disabilities will be considered on an individual basis, but a student in the Doctor of Pharmacy program must be able to perform in an independent manner. Every applicant is considered without regard to disability. Once accepted, students must complete all elements of the curriculum with or without reasonable accommodations. In the case of a documented disability, the College of Pharmacy must be fully satisfied that the applicant can make progress through the curriculum. Students in the Doctor of Pharmacy program must have the functional use of the senses of vision and hearing. A student's skills will also be lessened without the functional use of the senses of equilibrium and smell. Additionally, they must have sufficient exteroceptive senses (touch, pain and temperature), and sufficient motor functions to permit them to carry out the activities described in the sections that follow. Doctor of Pharmacy students must be able to integrate information received from multiple senses quickly and accurately. They must also have the intellectual ability to learn, integrate, analyze and synthesize data. Graduates of the College of Pharmacy must have the knowledge and skills to function in a broad variety of clinical, administrative and leadership situations and to render a wide spectrum of pharmaceutical care.
Throughout the pharmacy program, a student will be expected to maintain the technical standards and demonstrate them through their coursework, interaction with peers and faculty, and in their professional experiences. Students who fail to demonstrate the technical standards while in the program will be evaluated and appropriate action (e.g., remediation, counseling, or dismissal) will be taken. Because this expectation is separate from academic achievement, simply maintaining a passing GPA is not sufficient.
While the College of Pharmacy recognizes that certain disabilities can be accommodated without compromising the standards required by the college and the integrity of the curriculum, the use of a trained intermediary means that a student's judgment must be mediated by someone else's powers of selection and observation, and is not acceptable. Additionally, those individuals who would constitute a direct threat to the health or safety of others are not considered suitable candidates for continued matriculation.
The following skills are required, with or without accommodation:
Students must be able to observe demonstrations and conduct exercises in a variety of areas related to contemporary pharmacy practice, including but not limited to monitoring of drug response and preparation of specialty dosage forms. Students must be able to observe demonstrations and experiments in the basic and pharmaceutical sciences, medical illustrations and models, microscopic studies of microorganisms and tissues in normal and pathological states. A student must be able to observe a patient accurately at a distance and close at hand, noting nonverbal as well as verbal signals. The student must be able to observe and interpret presented information. Specific vision-related requirements include, but are not limited to the following abilities: visualizing and discriminating findings on monitoring tests; reading written and illustrated material; discriminating numbers and patterns associated with diagnostic and monitoring instruments and tests; observing the activities of technical staff operating under their supervision; reading information on a computer screen and small print on packages or package inserts; distinguishing shapes, colors, markings, and other characteristics of small objects (eg. different dosage forms); and competently using instruments for monitoring drug response. Observation requires not only the functional use of the sense of vision, but other sensory modalities as well such as hearing and other somatic senses. For example, observation can be enhanced in some situations by the use of the sense of smell.
A pharmacy student should be able to speak, to hear and to observe patients and other health care professionals in order to elicit both verbal and non-verbal information, and must be able to communicate effectively with and about patients. Communication includes speech, reading, writing and computer literacy. The student must be able to perceive and respond appropriately to all types of communication including telephone communications (verbal, non-verbal, written) from faculty, staff, peers, patients, caregivers, family of patients, the public, and all members of the health care team.
Specific requirements include but are not limited to the following abilities; reading, writing, speaking and comprehending English with sufficient mastery to accomplish didactic, clinical and laboratory curricular requirements in a timely, professional and accurate manner; eliciting a thorough medication and medical history; and communicating complex findings in appropriate terms that are understood by patients, caregivers, and members of the healthcare team. Each student must be able to read and record observations and care plans legibly, efficiently and accurately. Students must be able to prepare and communicate concise but complete summaries of individual activities, decisions and encounters with patients. Students must be able to complete forms or appropriately document activities according to directions in a complete and timely fashion.
Pharmacy students must have sufficient motor function to carry out basic laboratory techniques and skills to accomplish basic pharmacy practice tasks utilizing both gross and fine motor skills. These include but are not limited to; compounding prescriptions, filling prescriptions, counting prescription medications, administering medications, preparing intravenous products, and administering intramuscular and subcutaneous injections. The student must be able to conduct a physical assessment of a patient by palpation, auscultation and other diagnostic maneuvers. Other motor activities include performing first aid and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the clinical setting.
The student must be able to transport him or herself to off-site settings and experiential locations in a timely manner. Students must be able to respond promptly to urgencies within the practice setting and must not hinder the ability of their co-workers to provide prompt care. Examples of such emergency treatment reasonably required of pharmacists include arriving quickly when called, rapidly and accurately preparing appropriate emergency medication, and the preparation of sterile intravenous medications.
Students must be able to use computer-based information systems and have sufficient motor function and coordination required for manipulation of small and large objects. The student must have the ability to move and position another person in a manner that will facilitate physical assessment or other diagnostic lab testing. Lastly, students must exhibit the physical and mental stamina needed while standing or sitting for prolonged periods of time.
A student should possess sufficient intellectual, conceptual, integrative and quantitative abilities to complete a rigorous and intense didactic and experiential curriculum. These abilities include measurement, calculation, reasoning, analysis, decision-making, judgment, information integration, and solution synthesis. In addition, the student should be able to comprehend three-dimensional relationships and to understand the spatial relations of structures. Especially important is the appropriate and rapid calculation of dosages for a variety of patient-specific conditions such as renal or hepatic failure, obesity, cardiac or respiratory arrest, etc. Additionally, calculations involving appropriate dilution or reconstitution of drug products, electrolytes, etc. must be made accurately and quickly. Students must be able to retain and recall critical information in an efficient and timely manner. Students must be able to identify and acknowledge the limits of their knowledge to others when appropriate and be able to recognize when the limits of their knowledge indicate further study or investigation before making a decision. Students must be able to interpret graphs or charts describing biologic, economic or outcome relationships. They must be able to learn through a variety of modalities including, but not limited to, classroom instruction, small group activities, individual study, preparation and presentation of reports, and use of computer technology. Students are expected to be fully alert and attentive at all times in classroom and clinical settings.
Behavioral and Social
A pharmacy student must possess the physical and emotional health required for full utilization of his/her intellectual abilities, the exercise of good judgment, the prompt completion of all responsibilities attendant to the care of patients, and the development of effective relationships with patients. Students must adapt to changing environments, to display flexibility and function in the face of uncertainties inherent in the academic and clinical environments with appropriate coping responses. Compassion, integrity, concern for others, interpersonal skills, interest, and motivation are qualities that are assessed during the admission and education process. The student must recognize and display respect for differences in culture, values, and ethics among patients, faculty, peers, clinical and administrative staff and colleagues. The student must be able to identify and demonstrate appropriate behavior to protect the safety and well being of patients, faculty, peers, clinical and administrative staff and colleagues. Lastly, the student should handle situations appropriately and professionally when those situations may be physically, emotionally, or intellectually stressful, including those situations that must be handled promptly and calmly. At times, this requires the ability to be aware of and appropriately react to one's own immediate emotional responses and environment.
When a letter of acceptance to the University of New England College of Pharmacy is mailed, a detailed copy of the Technical Standards for completion of the curriculum will be included. The applicant will be asked to respond in writing whether he/she can meet the standards with or without accommodation. An applicant should be able to evaluate him or herself for compliance with these Technical Standards. In the event that accommodation is requested, the student must submit documentation of disability with the proposed accommodation from a certified specialist to UNE's Disability Services. A continuing student who develops a disability should request accommodations based on the limitations of the disability through Disability Services. Individuals unable to meet the above Technical Standards may be unable to progress and/or complete the Pharm.D. program.
Students must be able to meet the Maine State Board of Pharmacy licensing requirements to obtain a valid Introductory (IPPE) and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE) License. These licenses are required to complete off-campus experiential courses. Inability to obtain a Maine IPPE or APPE License may prevent completion of experiential courses and prevent a student from continuing in the program and completing the requirements for graduation. Students completing their experiential education in other states must meet the licensing requirements of that state.
The College of Pharmacy's Admissions Committee will consider the applicant based on the criteria for admission of all applicants. An applicant who discloses a disability and requests accommodation in the admission process may be required to submit, in writing, the request for accommodation and pertinent supporting documentation. This pertinent information may include a history of accommodations granted previously in other educational programs. Requests for accommodation may be initiated with UNE's Disability Services.
For more information on disabilities and accommodation, please contact the UNE Office of Students With Disabilities.
|PHP 100 - Introduction to Pharmacy Practice||3|
|PHP 101 - Pharmacy Calculations||2|
|PHS 102 - Pharmaceutics I with Laboratory||4|
|PHS 106 - Biochemistry & Drug Analysis||4|
|PHP 108 - Introduction to Drug Information||2|
|PHS 111 - Pathophysiology||3|
|PHS 104 - Pharmaceutics II with Laboratory||4|
|PHA 107 - Pharmacy Practice Management||2|
|PHS 109 - Medical Immunology||3|
|PHS 110 - Microbiology||3|
|PHS 112 - Pharmacogenomics||3|
|PHA 113 - Health Care Delivery & Finance||3|
|PHP 115 - Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience I||4|
|PHS 200 - Biopharmaceutics/Pharmacokinetics||3|
|PHS 202 - Medicinal Chemistry I||3|
|PHS 204 - Pharmacology I||3|
|PHP 207 - Self Care Therapeutics||3|
|PHS 208 - Biostatistics||3|
|PHP 201 - Therapeutics I||6|
|PHS 203 - Medicinal Chemistry II||3|
|PHS 205 - Pharmacology II||3|
|PHP 206 - Patient Assessment||3|
|PHP 215 - Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience II||4|
|PHP 301 - Therapeutics II||8|
|PHP 303 - Advanced Pharmacy Practice Laboratory||3|
|PHA 304 - Pharmacy Law & Ethics||3|
|PHS 306 - Pharmacy Seminar Series||1|
|PHP 300 - Clinical Pharmacokinetics||3|
|PHP 302 - Therapeutics III||6|
|PHP 305 - Outcomes Research||3|
|PHP 309 - Advanced Drug Information||3|
|Summer, Fall, Spring|
|PHP 400 - Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (6 x 6 weeks)||36|
|Total Credit Hours||148|
PHA- Pharmacy Administration
PHP- Pharmacy Practice
PHS- Pharmaceutical Science
Pharmacy Practice Experiences
The process of experiential education provides the student with the ability to integrate first-hand practical experience with their didactic and laboratory course work.
Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE)
The Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) will consist of two, four week assignments. One assignment will occur in a community (retail) pharmacy while the other will occur in an institutional (hospital) pharmacy. Each experience will provide 4 semester hours of credit for a total of 8 credit hours (320 contact hours). Introductory pharmacy practice experiences in community and institutional pharmacy settings begin early in the professional curriculum and are interfaced with didactic course instruction. This provides an introduction to the profession and continues in a progressive manner preparing the pharmacy student for the advanced pharmacy practice experiences.
Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE)
The Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) will occur immediately following the third year and throughout the fourth and final year which will consist of six, six-week assignments. Each experience will provide 6 semester hours of credit for a total of 36 credit hours (1440 contact hours). Each student will be required to successfully complete four required experiences in the following patient care settings: inpatient acute care medicine; outpatient or ambulatory care, community pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy as well as two elective experiences in various practice environments.
In keeping with the mission of the College of Pharmacy, our overarching curricular philosophy includes the following:
- Both the pharmaceutical and clinical sciences will be integrated throughout the curriculum, instilling in our graduates the understanding and need for continuous development (lifelong learning) of knowledge in these areas throughout their careers.
- The curriculum will be patient focused, developing our students as primary care providers through their understanding and application of the pharmaceutical and clinical sciences, and social, behavioral and administrative functions necessary to current pharmacy practice.
- Throughout the curriculum, students will have ample practical experience based on the provision of pharmaceutical care.
- Faculty will endeavor to continuously improve their didactic and experiential abilities to provide the most effective approaches to teaching and learning.
- The curriculum will remain current in regard to changes in pharmaceutical and clinical science, patient care, teaching methods, and practice experience in response to faculty, student, and relevant community input.
Upon completion of the Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum, student will achieve the following outcomes:
- Apply the principals of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences in the practice of pharmacy
- Managing systems and resources
- Communicate at a professional level with patients and other members of the healthcare professions
- Demonstrate professional, ethical, and legal conduct in the practice of pharmacy
- Evaluate drug orders and dispense pharmaceuticals
- Evaluate, synthesize, and provide drug information
- Promote public health and provide population based pharmaceutical care
- Provide patient-specific pharmaceutical care
Upon completion of a course of study, the faculty member in charge of that course submits the number of hours taught and a grade for each student to the the Associate Dean of the College of Pharmacy. The Doctor of Pharmacy Program uses a standard letter grade format with the exception that below average work (below a grade of C) will result in a failing grade. (A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, and F)
An incomplete grade (I) is given to a student who is doing passing work in a course, but who, for reasons beyond their control, is not able to complete the work on time. The incomplete grade must be changed within the time limit determined by the instructor and may not extend beyond six weeks following the end of the semester. The incomplete grade defers computation of credits for the course to which it is assigned. Failure to complete the work before the limitation date, or within the time imposed by the instructor, results in the assignment of a failing grade (F) for the course.
Course Add/Drop or Withdrawal Policy
Due to the standard curriculum sequence within the Doctor of Pharmacy Program, students are not allowed to add or drop Doctor of Pharmacy Program core courses. Students may not withdraw from a Doctor of Pharmacy Program core course; to do so indicates a complete withdrawal from the Doctor of Pharmacy Program. A pharmacy student may withdraw from an elective course within the first week of classes.
Repeat Course Policy
Courses in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program are offered once per year. If a course is failed the student is allowed to repeat it; however, the student must wait until the next time that course is offered or come to an agreement with the course instructor and the Scholastic Standing Committee in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program.
Upon completion of a repeated course, a new listing and assigned grade are placed on the student's transcript. The original course listing and grade remain on the student's transcript. All courses are listed chronologically on the transcript by semester or academic period in which they are enrolled.
Tuition and Fees
Tuition and fees for subsequent years may vary. Other expenses include books and housing. For more information regarding tuition and fees, please consult the Financial Information section of this catalog.
Books and Computers
Students in the didactic phase can plan on spending approximately $1,200 to $1,500 on required textbooks. Course syllabi and the program book list also include recommended books which students are not required to purchase, but may wish to have as important reference materials. A laptop computer is required for all students entering the Doctor of Pharmacy program. At least one copy of all required textbooks will be available for use within the Portland Campus library.
Students are responsible for expenses involved with travel, parking, living expenses and meals at clinical sites.
The program discourages students from having outside employment while attending the Doctor of Pharmacy Program. If a student feels that it is necessary to work while in the program, it is advisable that the student informs their academic advisor.
For information on on-campus and off-campus housing visit the Housing and Residence Life web pages.
Student Health Care
UNE has Student Health Care Centers on both the Biddeford Campus and the Portland Campus. For more information visit the Student Health Care website.
Detailed information and applications are available on request from the Financial Aid Office at the Biddeford Campus. Call 207-602-2342 or visit the Financial Aid Office website.
Notice and Responsibilities Regarding this Catalog
This Catalog documents the academic programs, policies, and activities of the University of New England for the 2013-2014 academic year. The information contained herein is accurate as of date of publication August 12, 2013.
The University of New England reserves the right in its sole judgment to make changes of any nature in its programs, calendar, or academic schedule whenever it is deemed necessary or desirable, including changes in course content, the rescheduling of classes with or without extending the academic term, canceling of scheduled classes or other academic activities, in any such case giving such notice thereof as is reasonably practicable under the circumstances.
While each student may work closely with an academic advisor, he or she must retain individual responsibility for meeting requirements in this catalog and for being aware of any changes in provisions or requirements.